【青华海生物多样性之美】赤麻鸭:“冻”真格了,幸好我的黄色羽绒服防水又

2021-01-20 15:13|来源:本站| 作者: admin| 查看: |


保山青华海国家湿地公园管理中心

保山市科学技术协会

联合推出

                                                     第9期

                                                     The 9th Phase

                                                     脊椎动物.赤麻鸭Tadorna ferruginea

                                                     脊椎动物,鸟纲,雁形目,鸭科。被列入“三有”名录,同时受到中国和日本政府保护候鸟及栖息环境协定的保护。赤
                                                     麻鸭分布于欧亚大陆及非洲北部,全球数量约17-22万只。在我国广泛繁殖于东北、西北及至青藏高原海拔4600处,在华
                                                     北及其以南越冬。赤麻鸭在保山是冬候鸟,每年11月到青华海越冬,3月北返繁殖。栖息于流水缓慢的淡水湖泊,在靠近
                                                     溪流和湖泊的洞穴筑巢繁殖。在青华海越冬的赤麻鸭近500只。

                                                      赤麻鸭体型很大(66厘米左右),全身棕黄色,在鸭群中格外醒目,是最好认的鸭子,很多人亲切地叫它小黄鸭。小
                                                      黄鸭脸和头部发白,嘴、脚、尾巴和翅尖黑色。飞行时白色的翅上和翅下覆羽和铜绿色的翼镜明显可见。雄鸟(繁殖羽)颈
                                                      部有狭窄的黑色颈环。赤麻鸭雌雄差别不大,但是雌性体型稍小,而且颈部没有黑色颈环。杂食性,以草、植物嫩芽、沉
                                                      水植物、陆生植物的种子以及小型水生动物为食。与其他鸭子相比,对水的依赖性没有那么强,经常在岸边、桩或石头上
                                                      单脚站立,把头缩在羽毛里休息。

                                                      赤麻鸭迁徙和越冬会集大群,生性好斗,喜欢鸣叫,白天和夜晚都会叫,而且叫声响亮,经常发出类似“啊~啊~”的叫
                                                      声。有时虽显吵闹,但没有小黄鸭的鸣叫,还真缺点冬天的感觉呢。

                                                      冬天到了,人们都裹紧了身上的羽绒服,不过整天泡在水里的鸭子们似乎并不怕冷啊。duck不必担心,它们自有防水
                                                      保暖妙招。鸭子羽毛致密的结构能够形成巨大的表面张力,可以起到疏水的作用,类似水黾在水面上漂浮。另外,鸭子的
                                                      屁股上面有个神奇的器官,叫做尾脂腺,可以分泌丰富的油脂。它们会用嘴巴咬这个尾脂腺,把里面的油脂挤出来,梳理
                                                      羽毛的时候就会把油脂涂抹到羽毛上,起到防水保暖的作用。除了鸭子等游禽,大多数鸟类也有尾脂腺,不过当然还是水
                                                      鸟的尾脂腺比较发达。有了防水又保暖的黄色羽绒服加持的赤麻鸭,理所当然是寒冷冬日里最靓的仔啦。

                                                      The 9th Phase

                                                       Ruddy Shelduck(Tadorna ferruginea)

                                                       Vertebrates, Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae. It is contained in the National List of Land Wildlife that is Beneficial or has
                                                       Important Economic or Scientific Value and protected by Agreement between China and Japan on the Protection of Migratory
                                                       Birds and their Habitats. Ruddy Shelduck is distributed in Eurasia and north Africa, with a global population of about
                                                       170,000-220,000. In China, Ruddy Shelduck breeds in northeast, northwest and even in some areas of Tibetan Plateau where
                                                       is up to 4600 elevation, and overwinter in North China and its south. Ruddy Shelduck is winter resident in Baoshan, who
                                                       come to Qinghuahai every November and return to north to breed in March.They like to inhabits slow-flowing lakes and
                                                       nest and breed in caves near streams and lakes. The population of Ruddy Shelduck overwintering in Qinghuahai National
                                                       Wetland Park is nearly 500.

                                                      Ruddy Shelduck is a large duck (about 66cm) with the whole brown and yellow body, which makes them stand out
                                                       among the ducks and become the best recognized duck. Many people call them Little Yellow Duck affectionately. Their
                                                       face and head are white, and their mouth, feet, tail and wing tips are black. Their white feather of over and under wings
                                                       and copper-green speculum are visible in flight. The male (breeding feather) has a narrow black collar around the neck.
                                                       There is little difference between male and female, but the female is smaller and has no black neck ring. They are omnivorous
                                                       and eat grasses, plant buds, submerged plants, seeds of terrestrial plants and small aquatic animals. Unlike other ducks,
                                                       they are less dependent on water and often rest on the shore, piles or rocks and standing with one foot with head buried in
                                                       feathers.

                                                      Ruddy Shelduck gather in large groups during migration and overwintering. They seem to be aggressive and like to
                                                       call day and night, and the call is very loud, which sounds like "ah ~ ah ~" call. That sounds noisy sometimes, but without
                                                       the sounds of little yellow duck, it really doesn’t feel like winter.

                                                      Winter is coming, people wrapped with down garment, but the ducks soaking in the water all day seem not afraid of
                                                       the cold. Don't worry, they have their own way of watertightness and keep warm. The dense structure of duck feathers
                                                       creates large surface tension, which can play the role of hydrophobic, acting as a water striders. In addition, there is a
                                                       wonderful organ on the bottom of the duck, called the oil gland, which can secrete rich oil. They will bite this oil gland
                                                       with their mouths, then squeeze out the oil inside, and they will spread the oil on the feathers when preening, which can
                                                       keep their feather dry and warm. Besides ducks, most birds also have oil gland, but of course waterbirds have more oil
                                                       gland. With a waterproof and warm yellow down garment, the Ruddy Shelduck is certainly the most beautiful gay in the
                                                       cold winter.


                                                            摄影师介绍

                                                     Introduction of the photographer


                                                       蔡庆彪,1989年生,贵州人 。2008年离开贵州到云南保山接触摄影。保山市摄影协会会员,隆阳区摄影协会常
                                                       务理事。多幅作品在摄影比赛中获奖,在各类摄影展中展示并被入册出版。长期在青华海拍鸟,其鸟类作品曾多次获
                                                       奖,《水雉的故事》曾获青华海鸟类摄影大赛视频组金奖,并登上央视,同时也是东方鸻、玉带海雕等云南和保山鸟
                                                       类新记录的记录者。

                                                        Qingbiao Cai, born in 1989, Guizhou native and left Guizhou for Baoshan In 2008. From then on, he began to
                                                       learn photography. He is a member of Baoshan Photography Association and the executive director of Longyang
                                                       District Photography Association. Many of his works have won awards in photography competitions, and be exhibited
                                                       and published. He has been taking photos of birds in The Qinghuahai for a long time, and his bird works have won
                                                       many awards. The Story of Pheasant-tailed Jacana won the gold medal in the Video group of the Qinghuahai Bird
                                                       Photography Contest and was listed on CCTV. Moreover, he is also the recorder of the Oriental Plover and Pallas's
                                                       Fish Eagle, which are the new records of Yunnan and Baoshan birds.


▲ 小黄鸭 嘎嘎嘎   蔡庆彪/摄


 

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