【青华海生物多样性之美】赤膀鸭:担心我不会潜水就要挨饿?duck不必,我可

2021-01-20 15:09|来源:本站| 作者: admin| 查看: |


保山青华海国家湿地公园管理中心

保山市科学技术协会

联合推出

                                                       第8期

                                                       The 8th Phase

                                                       脊椎动物.赤膀鸭 Mareca strepera

                                                       脊椎动物,鸟纲,雁形目,鸭科。被列入“三有”名录,同时受到中国和日本政府保护候鸟及栖息环境协定的保护。
                                                       赤膀鸭分布广泛,全世界种群数量近500万只。国内主要在东北、西北繁殖,在长江以南大部分地区的水域越冬。赤膀
                                                       鸭较少出现在沿海港湾,所以在有些地方不是很常见,但它们是青华海越冬水鸟的优势种,种群数量超过1000只。图
                                                       片摄于云南保山青华海国家湿地公园。

                                                       很多人容易把“赤膀鸭”听成“翅膀鸭”,那是没有看见它身上那块棕红色的羽毛,只要见过一次,一定不会忘记。雄
                                                       性赤膀鸭翅膀上有两块棕红色的部位,扇翅膀或者飞起来的时候特别明显,游泳的时候偶尔也能见到。而雌性赤膀鸭身
                                                       上并没有这个红棕色斑块,而且看起来麻麻的,和其他鸭子的雌鸟看起来比较像,但它们身上有明显的白色翼镜,而且
                                                       它们的嘴巴是整齐的上黑下黄(侧面有暗色斑点),这两点可以很好地和其他鸭子的雌鸟区别开。赤膀鸭乍看“平平无奇”,
                                                       但越看越美。雄鸟喙黑色,头淡褐色,身体大部分为银灰色并且密布细纹,尾上和尾下覆羽黑色,非常精致。

                                                       每年11月,赤膀鸭陆续从北方来到青华海越冬。现在,上千只赤膀鸭正在青华海“度假”中,也为春天北返繁殖进行
                                                       增胖与休养,所以常常能看到它们不是在吃,就是一动不动地睡觉(打盹)。除了繁殖期产卵的时候会偶尔吃一些水生
                                                       小动物外,赤膀鸭几乎是纯素食主义者,喜欢吃水草。它们不像䴙䴘或者潜鸭会潜水,所以它们只能一次又一次地把头
                                                       和上半身扎进水里,屁股朝上地觅食,或者用嘴过滤浮在水面上的植物碎片和藻类食用。东湖水位较浅,而且有丰富的
                                                       水生植物,如苦草、菹草、线叶眼子菜、穗状狐尾藻、荇菜等,为赤膀鸭等越冬候鸟们提供了良好的栖息环境。尽管食
                                                       物非常丰富,有时候赤膀鸭还是会非常霸道,会抢白眼潜鸭潜入水里弄上来的水草,甚至连青头潜鸭的食物都抢捡漏,
                                                       才不管你是不是世界极危鸟类。。。最强干饭王实锤了!

                                                       有小伙伴可能发现了,现在明明是冬天,为什么鸭子们就已经是一对对的呢?还没到繁殖期啊?其实,很多鸭子都
                                                       是冬天就已经完成配对啦,到了夏天,它们回到繁殖地就可以繁育小宝宝啦。

                                                       The 8th Phase

                                                       Gadwall(Mareca strepera)

                                                       Vertebrates, Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae. It is included in the National List of Land Wildlife that is Beneficial or has
                                                       Important Economic or Scientific Value and protected by Agreement between China and Japan on the Protection of Migratory
                                                       Birds and their Habitats. Gadwall is widely distributed and has a population of nearly 5 million worldwide. In China, they breed
                                                       mainly in northeast and northwest China and overwinter in most areas of south Yangtze River, rarely in coastal harbors, so
                                                       they are not very common in some places, but they are the dominant species of winter residents in Qinghuahai, with a
                                                       population of over 1,000. The photo is taken in The Qinghuahai National Wetland Park in Baoshan city, Yunnan proince.

                                                       Many people tend to hear " Gadwall (red wing duck in Chinese)" as "wing duck", that is because they don’t see the
                                                       brown red feathers of Gadwall. Once you see, you will never forget. Male Gadwall have two reddish brown spots on their
                                                       wings, which are particularly obvious when flapping or flying,  occasionally be seen when swimming. The females do not
                                                       have this reddish brown patch on their bodies, and they look brownish, which is similar to other female ducks, but they
                                                       have obvious white speculum, and their bill are neatly black on the top and yellow on the bottom(there are dark spots on
                                                       the sides), which can take other female ducks apart. Gadwall looks "ordinary" at first glance, but the more you see the
                                                       more they look beautiful. The bill of male is black and head is light brown. Most of their body is silvery gray and covered
                                                       with thin stripes, and the tail and undertail feathers are black, which looks very delicate.

                                                       Gadwall come from the north to spend winter in Qinghuahai every November. Now, thousands of Gadwall are "on
                                                       vacation" in Qinghuahai, fatten up and have rest for breeding when they return north in spring, so they can often be seen
                                                       either eating or sleeping motionless (taking a nap). Except occasionally eating small aquatic animals during the breeding
                                                       season to lay eggs, Gadwall are almost vegan and prefer to eat aquatic plants. Unlike the Grebe or Pochard, they can't
                                                       dive, so when they look for food, they dive their head,  upper body into water and put the butt out of the water, or they filter
                                                       plant debris and algae floating in the water through their mouth. The water level of East Lake is relatively shallow, and there
                                                       are abundant aquatic plants, such as Vallisneria natans, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pusillus, Myriophyllum spicatum
                                                       and Nymphoides peltatum etc., which provide a good habitat for the overwintering migratory birds such as Gadwall. Although
                                                       the food is plentiful, sometimes the Gadwall will be very aggressive and grab the water grass which was seek out by the
                                                       Ferruginous Duck by dive into the water. Moreover, they even grab the food of Baer's Pochard, ignoring that they are the
                                                       Critically endangered birds of the world.

                                                        Some friends may have noticed that it is winter now, but why are ducks already in pairs? Not yet the breeding season!
                                                       In fact, many ducks mate in winter, so they can breed when they return to their breeding grounds in summer.

                                                        摄影师介绍

                                                        Introduction of the photographer


                                                       黄木娇,保山青华海国家湿地公园管理中心工作人员,北京林业大学自然保护区学硕士,北京飞羽志愿者。从2014
                                                       年开始观鸟。“观鸟是走进大自然的终生门票”。

                                                       Mujiao Huang, a staff of Management Center of Baoshan Qinghuahai National Wetland Park. The Master of Nature
                                                       Reserve Science of Beijing Forestry University and is a volunteer of Beijing Feiyu. Starting birding in 2014. "Birding is a
                                                       lifetime ticket to step into nature".


▲ 不小心目睹了赤膀鸭抢别鸭食物的全过程  木娇、段红莲/摄

文字整理:黄木娇

海报设计:黄木娇

英文翻译:何雪、黄木娇

Text: Mujiao Huang

Poster design: Mujiao Huang

English translation: He Xue, Mujiao Huang


 

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