【青华海生物多样性之美】芦苇:我就是“蒹葭苍苍,白露为霜”里的“葭”!

2021-01-20 14:48|来源:本站| 作者: admin| 查看: |


保山青华海国家湿地公园管理中心

保山市科学技术协会

联合推出

                                                       第7期

                                                       The 7th Phase

                                                       被子植物.芦苇Phragmites australis

                                                       被子植物门,禾本科,芦苇属。芦苇分布广泛,是多年生草本,生于水边、沼泽地等湿生环境,是湿地生态系统的重要
                                                       组成部分。“蒹葭(jiān jiā)苍苍,白露为霜。所谓伊人,在水一方。” 很多人以为《诗经.蒹葭》里的“蒹葭”指的就是芦苇。
                                                       实际上,“蒹葭”不是一种植物,而是两种植物,这里面的葭指的是芦苇,而蒹一般认为是荻。图片摄于云南保山青华海国家
                                                       湿地公园。

                                                        芦苇茎秆直立,植株高大,通常1-3米,迎风摇曳,野趣横生。它们的根和根状茎生活在水下的淤泥里,另外能够长出
                                                       直立的地上茎,高高的挺出水面,是典型的挺水植物。这类植物的身体里通常都有很发达的通气组织,比如芦苇的中间是空
                                                       心的,在看不见的地方还有很多的气孔,方便它们位于水下的部分获得空气进行呼吸。秋天,芦苇开始变黄,植株的顶端形
                                                       成大型的毛绒绒的穗子,白色的芦花漫天飞扬,在微风中轻轻摇曳,飘然如雪,成为湿地里一道美丽的风景。这些穗,其实
                                                       就是芦苇的果实,飞舞的“芦花”其实是它成熟的果实基部长出的绒毛。如果对着芦花仔细寻找,就能在其中找到像没脱壳的
                                                       稻子一样的果实(种子),这些白色绒毛是它们随风传播的秘密武器。

                                                        芦苇地下匍匐的根状茎十分发达,繁殖能力和适应性强,能够迅速扩展领地,所以我们总能看到大片的芦苇。大面积芦
                                                        苇能调节气候,涵养水源,形成良好湿地生境,是鸟类栖息、觅食、繁殖家园。夏天,噪大苇莺在芦苇丛中筑巢、高歌,“呱
                                                        呱呱唧”的叫声热闹了整个夏天。黑水鸡、黄苇鳽以芦苇为掩护筑巢育雏。秋天,芦苇种子为斑文鸟和麻雀提供了可口的食物。
                                                        它们小小的身躯在细细的芦苇杆上下摇晃,嘴里塞满了毛茸茸的种子。

                                                         芦苇不仅能为其他生物提供良好的生存环境,其在生长过程中还可以吸收水中氮、磷等营养元素,对有机物和重金属也有
                                                         较强的富集和去除作用,达到净化水体的效果。另外,芦苇能够固碳,防止水土流失、固土护坡,还具有抵御外来入侵植物的
                                                         潜力。同时,芦苇的秆可以用来造纸(由于会产生污染,现在用得较少)、做建筑材料、制作芦笛、编织苇席和苇帘,芦叶可
                                                         以用来包粽子,花絮可以做枕头填充物。另外,芦苇还可以用来制作美丽的芦苇画。其根、茎、叶还具有一定的药用功能。

                                                         到了吃货最关心的问题,芦苇可以吃吗?其实,它身上还是有可以吃的部分的。比如它的嫩芽是可以当蔬菜来吃的。宋朝
                                                         的沈括在《梦溪补笔谈》曾写到“芦芽味稍甜,作蔬尤美”。我国著名的吃货文学家苏轼也曾写过“蒌蒿满地芦芽短,正是河豚欲上
                                                         时这”样的句子。又比如芦苇的根状茎,称为“芦根”,里面会积累一些糖分,主要用于食疗,据说有清热泻火,生津利尿的功效。
                                                         但是要把芦苇埋在地下的茎挖出来实在是有些费劲。

                                                         为了维护水生态系统的健康,需要应季及时收割芦苇。因为,大片干枯的芦苇不仅有消防隐患,而且它们水体污染物的吸附
                                                         能力已经达到饱和,如果让大量的芦苇残体在水中腐烂的话,还会严重影响水质,破坏水生态环境。去除芦苇枯萎、死亡的地上
                                                         部分,不仅有利于改善芦苇的生长状况,还可恢复其吸附水体污染物的功能。但要注意的是,收割芦苇等水草的工作要避开鸟类
                                                         繁殖期,为它们留下繁殖的空间。

                                                          The 7th Phase

                                                          Common Reed(Phragmites australis)

                                                           Angiospermae, Gramineae, Phragmites. Common Reed is widely distributed and a perennial herb, which is grow in wet
                                                         environment such as waterside and marsh. It is an important part of wetland ecosystem. “Green, green the jianjia, Dew and frost
                                                         gleam. Where’s she I need? Beyond the stream.” Many people think that “jianjia” from this song of The Book of Songs is the
                                                         Common Reed. In fact, they are two different plants. “jia” here refers to the Common Reed, while the “jian”  is generally considered
                                                         as Miscanthus sacchariflorus. The photo is taken in The Qinghuahai National Wetland Park in Baoshan city, Yunnan proince.

                                                          The stems of the Common Reed stand uprightly and is tall usually about 1-3 meters, swinging with wind, facinating and
                                                         interesting. Their roots and rhizomata live in the mud under the water, and they are typical emerging plants, and  capable to grow
                                                         uprightly above-ground stems above the water. These plants usually have well-developed ventilating tissues in their bodies. For
                                                         example, the CommonReed is hollow in the middle, and have many pores that cannot be seen, so that their underwater parts
                                                         can get air to breathe. In autumn, the Common Reed begin to turn yellow, and the top of the plants form large fluffy ears. The
                                                         white Common Reed flowers fly all over the sky, swinging gently, which looks like snow, becoming a beautiful scenery of wetland.
                                                         These ears, in fact, are the fruits of the Common Reed, the flower, is actually its villous mature fruit. If you look closely at the
                                                         “flowers”, you'll find fruit (seeds) like unshelled rice. These white villous are their secret weapon to spread by wind.

                                                          The underground creeping rhizomes of the Common Reed is well developed, with good reproduction and adaptability. They
                                                         are capable to expend their territory rapidly, so that we can always see large reed marshes.  Large area of Common Reed can
                                                         regulate the climate, conserve water and form a good wetland habitat, which is the home of birds living, foraging and breeding.
                                                         In summer, the Clamorous Reed Warbler nest in the reeds and sing loudly,  whose songs hum the summer. Common Moorhen
                                                         and Yellow Bittern nesting under the guise of reeds. In autumn, Common Reed seeds provide delicious food for Scaly-breasted
                                                         Munia and Eurasian Tree Sparrow. Their tiny bodies swing up and down thin Common Reed stalks, with mouths stuffed with fluffy
                                                         seeds.

                                                          Common Reed can not only provide a good living environment for other organisms, but also absorb nitrogen, phosphorus
                                                         and other nutrient elements in the water during the growth. It also has a strong enrichment and removal effect on organic matters
                                                         and heavy metals, so they can purify the water. In addition, the Common Reed can fixed carbon, prevent soil erosion, soil and
                                                         slope protection, they also has the potential to resist alien invasive plants. The stalks of Common Reed can be used to make
                                                         paper (less now because of pollution), make reed flutes, weave reed mats and reed curtains, and also as building materials.
                                                         Common Reed leaves can be used to make zongzi and inflorescence to fill pillow. In addition, reeds can be used to make
                                                         beautiful reed paintings. Its root, stem, leaf also has some kind of medicinal function.

                                                           When it comes to the foodie's greatest concern, can Common Reed be eaten? In fact, it still has edible parts. For example,
                                                         its tender bud can be eaten as vegetables. Shen Kuo in the Song Dynasty wrote in his book " The tender bud of Common Reed
                                                         taste slightly sweet and it's especially good as a vegetable". Su Shi, one of China's most famous foodie writers, wrote that
                                                         " Artemisia selengensis are everywhere and the tender bud of Common Reed are green and short, which is the time that puffer
                                                         is about to swim back into  river from  sea." Moreover, the rhizome of Common Reed, called "reed root", will accumulate some
                                                         sugar, which is mainly used for food therapy. It is said to have the function of clearing away heat and toxic materials, promoting
                                                         fluid production and diuresis. But it was difficult to dig out the stalks of the reeds buried in the ground.

                                                           In order to maintain the health of the aquatic ecosystem, Common Reed should be harvested timely and seasonally. This
                                                         is because large areas of dried reed not only have fire hazards, but also their adsorption capacity of water pollutants has reached
                                                         saturation. If a large number of reed residues are left and rot in the water, the quality of water will be seriously affected and water
                                                         ecological environment will be destroyed. Removing the withered and dead overground part of reed is not only beneficial to improve
                                                         the growth condition of reed, but also can restore its function of absorbing water pollutants. But it should be noted that the harvesting
                                                         of reeds and other aquatic plants should avoid  the breeding period of birds and leave places to breed.
 

                                                          今天是2021年第一天,新年快乐!
 

                                                          摄影师介绍

                                                          Introduction of the photographer

                                                         蔡庆彪,1989年生,贵州人 。2008年离开贵州到云南保山接触摄影。保山市摄影协会会员,隆阳区摄影协会常
                                                         务理事,中国民俗摄影协会会员。多幅作品在摄影比赛中获奖,在各类摄影展中展示并被入册出版。长期在青华海拍
                                                         鸟,其鸟类作品曾多次获奖,《水雉的故事》曾获青华海鸟类摄影大赛视频组金奖,并登上央视,同时也是东方鸻、
                                                         玉带海雕等云南和保山鸟类新记录的记录者。

                                                         Qingbiao Cai, born in 1989, Guizhou native and left Guizhou for Baoshan In 2008. From then on, he began to
                                                         learn photography. He is a member of Baoshan Photography Association and China Folk Photography Association,
                                                         and the executive director of Longyang District Photography Association. Many of his works have won awards in
                                                         photography competitions, and be exhibited and published. He has been taking photos of birds in The Qinghuahai
                                                         for a long time, and his bird works have won many awards. The Story of Pheasant-tailed Jacana won the gold medal
                                                         in the Video group of the Qinghuahai Bird Photography Contest and was listed on CCTV. Moreover, he is also the
                                                         recorder of the Oriental Plover and Pallas's Fish Eagle, which are the new records of Yunnan and Baoshan birds.
 

▲ 青华海秋冬的“芦花”  木娇/摄
 

文字整理:黄木娇

海报设计:黄木娇

英文翻译:何雪、黄木娇

Text: Mujiao Huang

Poster design: Mujiao Huang

English translation: He Xue, Mujiao Huang




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