【青华海生物多样性之美】大斑啄木鸟:这棵树,我觉得你指定是有点毛病

2020-12-30 09:06|来源:本站| 作者: admin| 查看: |

保山青华海国家湿地公园管理中心、保山市科学技术协会联合推出
 

                                                 第6期

                                                 The 6th Phase

                                                 脊椎动物.大斑啄木鸟Dendrocopos major

                                                 脊椎动物,鸟纲,啄木鸟目,啄木鸟科,被列入“三有”名录(国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究
                                                  价值的陆生野生动物名录),是我国30多种啄木鸟中最为常见的啄木鸟之一,分布广泛,为留鸟,主要生活于林
                                                  地。主要以天牛、小蠹虫、吉丁虫、透翅蛾以及鳞翅目幼虫等树干害虫为食,在控制森林虫害方面发挥着重要的
                                                  作用,被称为“森林医生”。图片摄于云南保山青华海国家湿地公园。

                                                  大斑啄木鸟是黑白相间的啄木鸟。雄鸟枕部红色而雌鸟枕部黑色,臀部均为红色,额、颊、耳羽和肩白色,
                                                   翅膀背面有两个特别明显的大白斑,是典型的攀禽,对趾足,两趾向前,两趾向后,觅食时常从树的中下部跳跃
                                                   式地向上攀援。大斑啄木鸟身体很敦实,飞起来振翅缓慢,声音较大,呈波浪状。大斑啄木鸟为树栖鸟类,凿树
                                                   洞为巢,多在高大树木的树干腐朽部位、枯立木或心腐木上筑巢,而且几乎每年都要凿啄新巢。那旧巢怎么办呢?
                                                   可以留给那些买不起房的鸟儿呀。同时,这些旧房子也能为松鼠、爬行动物及无脊椎动物提供栖息繁殖地,所以,
                                                   啄木鸟对森林的生物多样性也大有裨益。

                                                  大斑啄木鸟就像一位杰出的“森林医生”。它用锐利的钩爪紧紧地抓住树干,用那又粗又硬的尾巴来支撑身体,
                                                   用凿子般的利嘴凿开蛀虫的洞穴,用细长的带有黏液和倒刺的舌头将害虫勾出来吃掉。一千多年前,诗人陈标称赞
                                                   道:丁丁向晚急还稀,啄遍庭槐未肯归。终日与君除蠧害,莫嫌无事不频飞。

                                                  啄木是啄木鸟最主要的活动之一。但啄木不仅仅是在觅食,在春天的时候它们也会通过敲击树干来求偶、炫技、
                                                   宣誓领地。据科学研究,大斑啄木鸟敲击的频率最高能够达到每秒20次,这么高的频率,它们脑袋到底疼不疼呢?
                                                   不会得脑震荡吧?
放心,它们特殊的头部结构能起到缓冲和减震的作用。它们的头骨很厚实,内有海绵状空腔,可
                                                   以吸收震动。大脑比较小,周围被致密松软的组织包裹着,起到缓冲的作用。在敲击树干前的一瞬间,它们的眼睛
                                                   瞬膜会快速闭上闭,防止眼球受伤。啄木轨迹是一条直线,能够避免旋转产生的剪切力,从而避免了脑震荡。另外,
                                                   啄木鸟的下喙比上喙长,撞击的时候肌肉能够收缩,把产生的力量从下面的喙转移到身体上去,而头部承受的很少。
                                                   最特别的还是啄木鸟的舌头,它们的舌头很长很长,舌骨能够在颅骨上绕一圈,像一条强力安全带,保护着大脑。
                                                   之,啄木鸟就是一台行走的减震机器。

                                                  啄木鸟对我们大多数人来说并不陌生,但很多人都没有亲眼见过。下次当你在公园玩耍时,如果听到一阵“哒哒哒”
                                                   敲木头的声音,那你可要留意了,有可能正是啄木鸟在给树木进行外科手术呢。

                                                  The 6th Phase

                                                  Great Spotted Woodpecker

                                                 (Dendrocopos major)

                                                           Vertebrates, Aves, Piciformes, Picidae. It is included in the National List of Land Wildlife that is Beneficial or
                                                   has Important Economic or Scientific Value. It is one of the most common woodpeckers among more than 30 species
                                                   in China. It is widely distributed resident birds and mainly lives in forest areas. They mainly feed on tree trunk pests
                                                   like longicorns, bark beetles, flat-headed borer, clearwing moth and larvae of lepidoptera. They play an important role
                                                   in forest pest control and are known as "forest doctor". The photo is taken in The Qinghuahai National Wetland Park
                                                   in Baoshan city, Yunnan proince.

                                                           The Great Spotted Woodpecker is a black and white woodpecker. The male bird has a red occiput, while the
                                                    female bird has a black one, but all of them have red buttocks. Their forehead, cheek, ear feathers and shoulder are
                                                    white, two particularly distinct large white spots are on its back wings. It is a typical climber, which has zygodactylous
                                                    foot, two toes forward and two toes back, and they often jumps up from the middle and lower part of the tree for food.
                                                    The great pecker is stocky and flies slowly and wavily, making a loud sound. The Great Spotted Woodpecker is an
                                                    arboreal bird that pecks trees for its nest. It often builds its nest on the decayed parts of the trunk of big trees, dead or
                                                    heart rot wood, and it picks new nests almost every year. What about the old nest? Save it for the birds who can't
                                                    afford an apartment. These old houses also provide breeding grounds for squirrels, reptiles and invertebrates, so
                                                    woodpeckers are also good for forest biodiversity.

                                                            The Great Spotted Woodpecker is like a great "forest doctor." It grasps the trunk with sharp claws, and support
                                                     itself with thick, hard tail, then cut holes in the wormhole with chisel-like sharp beak, and draw out and eat the pests
                                                     with long, thin tongue with mucus and barbs. More than a thousand years ago, the poet Chen Biao praised that.

                                                             Woodpecking is one of the most important activities of woodpeckers, but pecking isn't just about foraging. In spring,
                                                      they also tap on tree trunks to court, show off their skills and take the territory. According to scientific research, the Great
                                                      Spotted Woodpecker can hit as many as 20 times a second. At that rate, does its head hurt or not? Does it get a
                                                      concussion? Don't worry, they have a special head structure to cushion and decrease shock. Their skulls are thick, with
                                                      spongy cavities that decrease shock. Their brain is small, cushioned by dense, spongy tissue. At the moment before they
                                                      hit the trunk, the membrana nictitans of their eyes close quickly, preventing injury. The pecking track is a straight line that
                                                      avoids the shearing force of rotation, thus avoiding concussion. In addition, a woodpecker's lower bill is longer than its
                                                      upper one, and its muscle contracts on impact, transferring force from the lower bill to the body, while the head bears
                                                      less. The most special is the tongue of the woodpeckers, which has a very long tongue, and the hyoid is able to go around
                                                      the skull, like a strong safety belt, to protect the brain. In short, a woodpecker is a shock-decreasing machine.

                                                             Woodpeckers are not new to most of us, but many of us have never seen them. Next time, when you're playing in the
                                                      park and hear "tap-tap-tap" , you should pay attention, because it may be a woodpecker doing surgery on a tree.

▲ 来欣赏下正在啄木的大斑啄木鸟   图源见水印

                                                    摄影师介绍

                                                    Introduction of the photographer


杨晓琢,保山青华海国家湿地公园管理中心工作人员,观鸟萌新。“活了二十多年,终于见到和我外号一样的鸟,它就是啄木鸟。”

                                                     Xiaozhuo Yang, a native of Longyang District, Baoshan City, Yunnan Province, is a new birder. "Living more than
                                                      20 years, I finally see the bird with the same name as my nickname. That’s right! It is the woodpecker!"

文字整理:黄木娇

海报设计:黄木娇

英文翻译:何雪、黄木娇

Text: Mujiao Huang

Poster design: Mujiao Huang

English translation: He Xue, Mujiao Huang


 

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