青华海生物多样性之美】灰鹤:鸟口数量最多的“普通鹤”

2020-12-25 08:58|来源:本站| 作者: admin| 查看: |

保山青华海国家湿地公园管理中心

保山市科学技术协会

联合推出

                                                            第5期

                                                            The 5th Phase

                                                            脊椎动物.灰鹤Grus grus

                                                           脊椎动物,鸟纲,鹤形目,鹤科。我国II级重点保护野生动物,主要分布在欧亚大陆,是典型的迁徙鸟类。每
                                                    
10月,灰鹤从繁殖地开始迁徙,去往越冬地,并于次年3月返回繁殖地。在云南为冬候鸟或迁徙过境鸟。我国是
                                                    鹤类种数最多的国家,全世界有15种鹤,而我国有9种。图片摄于云南保山青华海国家湿地公园。

                                                           灰鹤身材高挑,身高能达1.2米左右,喙长、颈长、腿长,是典型的“涉禽”。鸟如其名,全身的羽毛大部分为
                                                    
色。成年灰鹤具有黑白分明的头部,头顶黑色,中心红色(和亲戚丹顶鹤一样也有个小“丹顶”,这不是羽毛,
                                                    盈的血管在裸露的皮肤下呈现出来的红色,相当于有点“秃顶”),前颈黑色,自眼后有一道宽的白色条纹
                                                    伸至颈背。站立时,能看到它们的“尾部”羽毛又大又长,像鸵鸟一样,这其实是灰鹤的三级飞羽。灰鹤雌雄差别
                                                    不大,但成鸟和幼鸟形态差异显著,幼鸟的头部和颈部都是灰色的。

                                                            灰鹤的英文名为common crane,直译成中文为“普通鹤”,之所以普通,大概是因为它们分布广,较为常
                                                    
见。在世界范围内,灰鹤分布地包括了欧洲、亚洲和非洲。在我国,灰鹤分布于各省区,夏季主要在新疆、黑龙江、
                                                    蒙古等高纬度地区繁殖,冬季则南迁至华中、华北、西南等地区越冬,越冬地十分广阔。在云南发现的灰鹤
                                                    哪里来的呢?大概迁徙路线是从俄罗斯的西西伯利亚,经过新疆、甘肃、四川进入云南,部分留强,是目前世界
                                                    在云南越冬,另一部分稍作整顿之后,再往南进入缅甸和印度等地越冬。灰鹤能够适应多种环境而且生命力顽15
                                                    中数量最大、分布最广的物种,全球种群数量在50万只左右。

                                                            灰鹤的越冬地通常会选择在开阔的平原、草地、沼泽、河滩、湖泊及农田地带。主要以植物的根、茎、叶、
                                                   
种子食,喜欢吃豆类、玉米、马铃薯和冬小麦等作物以及湿地植物的种子或植株,偶尔也吃螺、鱼、虾等动物。
                                                   灰鹤多集群越冬,觅食、警戒、休息、理羽是它们最主要的活动。无论在夜间还是白天,灰鹤群中都有“值班警
                                                   鹤”及时报警,这样能少个体警戒的时间,能够有更多的时间花在觅食和补充能量上。

                                                          灰鹤喜欢集大群迁徙,迁徙的时候飞得很高,常常排列成“人”字形。身体保持水平,头、颈和细长的腿都伸
                                                   
姿势从容优雅,振翅和滑翔过程十分缓慢而富有震撼力。灰鹤在飞行中常常发出深沉而嘹亮的叫声(类
                                                   “karr”),到联络呼叫的作用。《诗经.小雅.鹤鸣》就有“鹤鸣于九皋,声闻于野”之句。今年11月初,
                                                   多个灰鹤群从保山上空经过,起码有2次分别是200多个的灰鹤大群,其中11月2日中午经过青华海东湖上空的200
                                                   多只灰鹤,据说当天下午就到达了宏,可能要飞往更南的地方越冬,很多市民都看到了这个壮观的场景。

                                                          鹤类对栖息环境要求较高,种群很容易受到威胁,需要加强保护。“清响彻云霄,万籁悉以屏”,愿年年能听到
                                                   
徙的鹤鸣,不只为天空那美丽的风景,也为了维护地球脆弱的生态平衡。

                                                         The 5th Phase

                                                         Common Crane(Grus grus)

                                                         Vertebrates, Aves, Gruiformes, Gruidae, is one of the ClassⅡnational key protected wild bird which mainly
                                                   
distributedin Eurasia, and is a typical migratory bird. Every October, Common Crane start their migration from 
                                                   their breeding placesto the wintering habitat, then return back next March. In Yunnan province, they are winter 
                                                   residents or migratory birds. Chinas the richest in variety of crane species. There are 15 kinds of cranes in the 
                                                   world, while there are 9 kinds in our country. Thephoto is taken in The Qinghuahai National Wetland Park in
                                                   Baoshan city, Yunnan proince.

                                                         Common Crane is tall, reaching a height of about 1.2 meters, with long beak, neck and legs. They are typical
                                                    
 "waders".As the name suggests, Common Crane are mostly gray in feathers. Adults have black and white head, 
                                                    and the top of thehead is black with a red spot in the middle (just like their relative Red-crowned Crane, this red 
                                                    spot is not feather, but the blood vessels under the bare skin, which appears red and like a little "bald"). The foredeck
                                                    is black and there is a widewhite stripes from the eyes to the nape of the neck. When standing, you can see their 
                                                    large and long "tail" feathers, like ostriches, which are actually the tertiaries. There is little difference between males
                                                    and females, but there is a significant difference between adult birds and young. The young birds have gray heads
                                                    and necks.

                                                          Why Grus grus was called Common Crane, probably because it is widely distributed and relatively common. 
                                                    
You can see Common Crane in Europe, Asia and Africa. In China, Common Crane are distributed in all provinces
                                                    and regions. Insummer, they mainly breed in mid-and high-latitude areas such as Xinjiang, Heilongjiang and Inner
                                                    Mongolia. In winter, they migrate south to central China, North China, southwest China and other regions, and their
                                                    wintering areas are very broad.Where did the cranes found in Yunnan come from? Their probable migration route is 
                                                    from Russia's western Siberia through Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan into Yunnan, some remaining in Yunnan for  
                                                    wintering,others heading south into Myanmarand India for wintering after a short break. Common Crane are able to 
                                                    adapt to avariety of environments and are hardy birds. They are the largest and most widely distributed of the 15 
                                                    species of cranesin the world. The global population is estimated to number 500,000 individuals.

                                                           The wintering grounds of Common Crane are usually open plains, grasslands, swamps, rivers, lakes and
                                                    
 farmland.They mainly eat roots, stems, leaves and seeds of plants. They like to eat beans, corn, potatoes, winter 
                                                     wheat and othercrops, as well as seeds or plants of wetland plants. Occasionally, they also eat animals such snails, 
                                                     fish and shrimps.Many Common Crane overwinter in clusters. Foraging, warning, resting and preening are their most 
                                                     important activities.The guard cranes are on duty day and night, which allows other cranes spend more time foraging.

                                                           Common Crane like to migrate in large groups. They fly very high, and often arrange in a "V" shape. They keep
                                                     
their body level, and straighten their head, neck and legs, which makes their posture poised and graceful. Their wing
                                                     flapping and gliding was slow and impressive. In flight, the crane often emits a deep and loud call (similar to "Karr"), 
                                                     which servesas a liaison. The Book of Songs described similar scenes . In early November this year, several Common
                                                     Crane groupspass over Baoshan city, and there are at least 2 large groups over 200 Common Cranes. A group 
                                                     of Common Crane wasseen passing over Qinghuahai at noon in November 2. It is said that they have arrived in Dehong
                                                     in the afternoon thatday, and they probably fly further south to overwintering. Many citizens have seen the spectacular
                                                     scenes.

                                                            Cranes have a high demand on the habitat environment, and is easily threatened, which needs strengthen the
                                                      
protection.We hope to see the migrating cranes every year, not only for the beautiful scenery in the sky, but also for 
                                                      the weak ecological balance of the earth.

 



摄影师介绍

Introduction of the photographer


郭康,云南省保山市隆阳区人,生态摄影师,有5年的鸟类摄影经验。保护鸟类,保护野生动物,维护生态平衡。
 

                                                       GuoKang, a native of Longyang District, Baoshan City, Yunnan Province, is an experienced ecological
                                                       photographer about 5 years in bird photography.Protect birds, protect wild animals and keep ecological balance.


文字整理:黄木娇

海报设计:黄木娇

英文翻译:何雪、黄木娇

Text: Mujiao Huang

Poster design: Mujiao Huang

English translation: He Xue, Mujiao Huang




<
>